Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

The Global Economic Cost of COVID-19 Vaccine Nationalism

Millions of people worldwide have been infected with COVID-19 and so far, more than a million have lost their lives because of the pandemic. A huge global research effort is taking place to bring a fast-tracked vaccine to the market. Currently there are more than 165 vaccines being developed, with some already in human trials.

Even when a safe and effective COVID-19 vaccine or treatment is eventually developed, further challenges will emerge with regard to the manufacturing and distribution process. There is a threat that 'vaccine nationalism' could have negative consequences on how well the global pandemic is managed and contained.

In light of this, RAND Europe sought to understand how vaccine nationalism would affect the global crisis once a COVID-19 vaccine is developed and examined the economic effects that could arise as a result of unequal access to the vaccine.


Hafner, Marco, Erez Yerushalmi, Clement Fays, Elian Dufresne, and Christain Van Stolk
The Global Economic Cost of COVID-19 Vaccine NationalismRand CorporationResearch Briefs

Check out previous Environmental Scans

The National Institute of Corrections publishes this compilation of resources each year as an overview of what research indicates to be the trends in the corrections industry each year.
Accession Number: (2018) 033176, (2019) 033431, (2020) 033563, (2021) 033670, (2022) 033086, (2023) 033087