Module 5: Section 4. Terms Used in the Field

This section defined a number of basic terms used in this module. These terms have been highlighted throughout the module, allowing you to rollover the term to see the definition.

Assessment
The systematic collection, analysis, and utilization of objective information about an offender's level of risk and need.1
Cognitive behavioral process
The complex relationship among thoughts, feelings, and behavior. People learn to manage this relationship from personal experience and from interaction with significant others. Deficits in the cognitive behavioral process may reinforce antisocial behavior, and these deficits often can be corrected through cognitive behavioral therapy.2
Criminogenic factors
Recognized factors that have been proven to correlate highly with future criminal behavior.
Criminogenic needs
Factors that research has shown have a direct link to offending and can be changed.
Effective practice
Modes of operation that produce intended results,3 and, in relation to the TJC model, that enable the successful community reintegration of offenders so they end up leading productive and crime-free lives.
Evidence based practice
the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual offenders by integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research.4
Modeling
Within a social-learning environment, the demonstration of prosocial skills by correctional officers, staff, and counselors to reinforce positive changes exhibited by transitioning offenders. An all-important aspect of any transition effort because successful transition efforts have been proven to take place within social-learning environments.
Responsivity
Matching an offender's personality and learning style with appropriate program settings and approaches.5
Risk
The probability that an offender will commit additional offenses.6
Triage
The process by which a person is screened and assessed immediately on arrival at the jail or community service to determine the urgency of the person's risk and needs in order to designated appropriate resources to care for the identified problems.7

1 Zajac, Gary. 2007. Principles of Effective Offender Intervention. Pennsylvania Department of Corrections, Office of Planning, Research, Statistics & Grants, Camp Hill, PA.

2 Chapman, Tim and Michael Hough. 1998. Evidence-based Practice: A Guide to Effective Practice. London: Home Office Publications Unit.

3 Ibid.

4  Adapted from David L Sackett, William M.C. Rosenberg, J.A. Muir Gray, R. Brian Haynes and W. Scott Richardson. 1996 (January). “Evidence based Medicine: What It Is and What It Isn't.” British Medical Journal 312, 71-72. .

5  Zajac, Gary. 2007. Principles of Effective Offender Intervention. Pennsylvania Department of Corrections, Office of Planning, Research, Statistics & Grants, Camp Hill, PA.

6 Ibid.

7 Cook, S. and D. Sinclair. 1997. “Emergency Department Triage: A Program Assessment Using the Tools of Continuous Quality Improvement.” Journal of Emergency Medicine 15: 889-894.