From the end of 2017 to the end of 2018, the total prison population in the United States declined from 1,489,200 to 1,465,200, a decrease of 24,000 prisoners. Tis was a 1.6% decline in the prison population and marked the fourth consecutive annual decrease of at least 1%. Te combined federal and state imprisonment rate, based on sentenced prisoners (those sentenced to more than one year), fell 2.4% from 2017 to 2018, declining from 441 to 431 prisoners per 100,000 U.S. residents. Across a decade, the imprisonment rate—the proportion of U.S. residents who are in prison—fell 15%, from 506 sentenced prisoners in 2008 to 431 in 2018 per 100,000 U.S. residents (fgure 1). During that time, the imprisonment rate dropped 28% among black residents, 21% among Hispanic residents, and 13% among white residents. It also dropped among both men (down 15%) and women (down 9%). Te imprisonment rate overall was lower in 2018 (431 sentenced prisoners per 100,000 U.S. residents) than at any time since 1996 (427).