Probation and Parole in the United States, 2016

An estimated 4,537,100 adults were under community supervision as of December 31, 2016 (year-end), a decline of 1.1% from 4,586,900 on January 1, 2016. An estimated one in 55 adults in the United States were under community supervision at year-end 2016. Persons on probation accounted for the majority (81%) of adults under community supervision.

The decline observed in the adult community corrections population in 2016 was the result of a decrease in the probation population. The probation population declined 1.4%, from an estimated 3,725,600 offenders on January 1, 2016, to 3,673,100 at year-end 2016. The parole population continued to grow, increasing by 0.5%, from 870,500 persons at year-end 2015 to 874,800 at year-end 2016.

HIGHLIGHTS

  • At year-end 2016, an estimated 4,537,100 adults were under community supervision (probation or parole), down 49,800 offenders (down 1.1%) from January 1, 2016.
  • The total community supervision population in 2016 was at its lowest level since 1999.
  • Approximately 1 in 55 adults in the United States were under community supervision at year-end 2016.
  • The adult probation population declined by 1.4% from January 1, 2016, to December 1, 2016, falling by 52,500 (to 3,673,100).
  • Probation exits increased from 2,043,200 in 2015 to 2,071,400 in 2016.
  • The adult parole population increased by 0.5% (up 4,300) from year-end 2015 to an estimated 874,800 at year-end 2016.
  • Exits from parole decreased from an estimated 463,700 in 2015 to 456,000 in 2016. 
Year: 
2016