3c: Creating a Resource Inventory

Navigating the Roadmap

Activity 3: Understand current practice within each agency/across the system.

Introduction

In addition to developing a system map and gathering information about the defendants/offenders in your system, conducting an assessment of the various services and resources available—within the criminal justice system, as well as from public sector entities in your community—will better inform your team’s policy and practice decisions.

Purpose

This Starter Kit is designed to provide instructions on how a jurisdiction might inventory and assess the resources available to defendants/offenders in their community and determine the strengths and best use of the current array of services, as well as gaps and overlaps in services.  

Participants

Participants should include staff from the multiple criminal justice agencies represented on the policy team who are most knowledgeable about the resources, programs, and interventions available to offenders/defendants.

Instructions

  1. Conduct a brainstorming session to develop a list of all the resources in your jurisdiction currently available for defendants/offenders. Some of these resources will be within the criminal justice system (e.g., a life skills class offered by the probation department), some will be in other public sector agencies (e.g., a job training program in the county’s office of workforce development), and some will be in the private sector (e.g., specialized substance abuse or mental health treatment).
  2. Create a matrix to collect specific information about each resource and research each to gather pertinent information. At a minimum, identify the specific services available through each resource, including their admission and selection criteria, duration/length, capacity, the criminogenic needs that the program addresses, and a rating (such as one from the CPC, CPAI, or a similar entity). You may also provide a brief description of the service. See Appendix 1 for a template of such a matrix.
  3. Compile your findings into a report or chart after the resource inventory is complete. Review the findings with your team to assess the resource inventory for completeness and to identify the strengths in your current array of services, as well as overlaps and gaps. Use this as an opportunity to consider ways to improve upon this array. For instance, should resources be shifted from one service area where there is an excess in service (e.g., where resources are devoted to non-criminogenic needs) to other areas where there are gaps? Appendix 2 provides a list of criminogenic needs and considerations around dosage, intensity, and duration of programming by risk level for adult offenders.
  4. Consider developing a directory of your resources so you can share this information with pertinent stakeholders in your jurisdiction (e.g., probation officers, prosecutors, defenders, judges).

Example: Yamhill County, Oregon, Correctional Programming Options (Abbreviated version of full document)

 

Community-Based Programs

Program Name

Moral Reconation Therapy (MRT)

Brief Description

Evidence-based program that encourages clients to develop prosocial thoughts and behaviors

Based on Curriculum-Based Motivation Group by Anne Fields of Portland, OR (2004)

Admission & Selection Criteria

Offenders sentenced to 6 months or greater

High and/or medium risk on the LSI-R

Potential candidates are identified through monthly review of the sentenced populations’ risk factors

Only offered to male clients

Female clients complete Phase II AMCP in gender-specific group, as MRT not currently offered to female clients

Program Length, Cycle & Dosage

Groups typically meet once per week for 13 weeks

MRT consists of 13 chapters and homework assignments

Clients may not miss more than two MRT sessions; otherwise, they will be directed to start over with AMCP Orientation and Phase I

Length of program varies depending on client participation, motivation, and progress

Minimum total dosage = 19.5 hours class time; estimated at 13 groups (13 assignments) of 1.5 hours each

Program Capacity

Class size is 12 persons

Only one group offered at a time

Open group

Members start and finish individually

Criminogenic Needs Addressed

Primary = Antisocial personality/Attitudes

Secondary = Alcohol/Drug

CPC (or other) Rating

This program has not been evaluated

 

 

 

Community-Based Programs

Program Name

Ready to Work (RTW)

Brief Description

RTW is an ongoing job development program created to assist probation clients in developing the tools necessary to be successful in finding employment.

 

RTW includes a comprehensive intake interview, career identification, and goal setting; 40 hours of unpaid practical work experience; career development workshops; and educational opportunities.

Admission & Selection Criteria

Sentenced, unemployed offenders

High and/or medium risk on the LSI-R

Potential candidates are identified through monthly review of the sentenced populations’ risk factors and/or court/PO referral as sanction/intervention

Program Length, Cycle & Dosage

Four-tier system:

- Tier I (30 days): daily reporting

- Tier II (11 classes): work groups through job source

- Tier III (until employment gained): independent (report once weekly)

- Tier IV (90 days): job success

In each tier, clients participate in the program five days per week, eight hours per day, unless otherwise directed.

 

Program Capacity

20persons maximum for Tier I, 10 persons for Tier II, and 10 persons for Tier III

Daily reporting and/or 1–2 employment classes/appointments per week, depending on phase

Total 40persons at any one time, in all three phases combined

Criminogenic Needs Addressed

Primary = Education/Employment

Secondary = Antisocial patterns

CPC (or other) Rating

This program has not been evaluated

 

Additional Resources/Readings

 

CSOM. (2007). Section three: An overview of the steps in the planning and implementation process. Enhancing the management of adult and juvenile sex offenders: A handbook for policymakers and practitioners (pp. 29–56). Retrieved from http://www.csom.org/pubs/csom_handbook.pdf

 

McGarry, P., & Ney, B. (2006). Getting it right: Collaborative problem solving for criminal justice. (NIC Accession No. 019834). Retrieved from http://nicic.gov/Downloads/PDF/Library/019834.pdf  

 

 

Appendix 1: Resource Inventory Matrix Template

 

County Name: Correctional Programming Options

Jail-Based Programs

Program Name

Brief Description

Admission & Selection Criteria

Program Length, Cycle, & Dosage

Program Capacity

Criminogenic Needs Addressed

CPC (or other) Rating

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix 2: Risk and Criminogenic Need Considerations

Dosage, Intensity, and Duration by Risk Level for Adult Offenders[1] 

dosage, intensity, duration

What Are the Criminogenic Needs and their Implications for Intervention?

While the literature has slightly different ways of expressing criminogenic needs, generally they fall into the eight areas noted below.[2]

Top 4 Criminogenic Needs

Criminogenic Need

Response

History of antisocial behavior

Build non-criminal alternative behavior in risky situations

Antisocial personality pattern

Build problem solving, self-management, anger management, and coping skills

Antisocial attitudes, cognition

Reduce antisocial thinking; recognize risky thinking and feelings; adopt alternative identity/thinking patterns

Antisocial associates, peers

Reduce association with antisocial others; enhance contact with prosocial others

 

Next Four Criminogenic Needs

Criminogenic Need

Response

Family and/or marital stressors

Reduce conflict; build positive relationships and communication

Lack of employment stability, achievement; lack of educational achievement

Increase vocational skills; seek employment stability; increase educational achievement

Lack of prosocial leisure activities

Increase involvement in and level of satisfaction with prosocial activities

Substance abuse

Reduce use; reduce the supports for substance-abusing lifestyle; increase alternative coping strategies and leisure activities

 

References:

Andrews, D. A. (2007). Principles of effective correctional programs. In L. L. Motiuk & R. C. Serin (Eds.), Compendium 2000 on effective correctional programming. Retrieved from http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/rsrch/compendium/2000/chap_2-eng.shtml

Andrews, D. A., Bonta, J., & Wormith, J. S. (2006). The recent past and near future of risk and/or need assessment. Crime & Delinquency, 52(1): 7–27.

Bourgon, G., & Armstrong, B. (2005). Transferring the principles of effective treatment into a "real world" prison setting. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 32: 3–25.

 

[1] Bourgon & Armstrong, 2005; for more information see the Coaching Packet on Effective Case Management, available at http://www.cepp.com/coaching.htm

[2] Andrews, 2007; Andrews, Bonta, & Wormith, 2006, p. 11; for more information see the Coaching Packet on Implementing Evidence-Based Practices, available at http://www.cepp.com/coaching.htm